In due course for various reasons in plaster inevitably there are cracks, hollows, scratches. To the repairman, invited to eliminate damages, it is necessary to establish and eliminate, first of all, the reason which has caused this phenomenon.
The Most frequent reason of damages of plaster is unreliability of its coupling with the basic surface or different layers with each other. Durability of coupling check prostukivaniem. The deaf sound testifies to unsatisfactory coupling.
Thus, define borders of the damaged site. If its area exceeds 0,25 m 2 plaster on it beat off completely and replace new.
Plaster Removal not on all depth make at otsloenii only top layer, at technical damages of external layers.
Brick surfaces after otbivki should be cleared plasters carefully of the rests of a solution and to wash out, edges of an old covering to cut off as the crow flies. For the best coupling new nameta with a wall it is necessary to clear away on depth of 1 sm bricklaying seams. Concrete surfaces clear of an old solution and wash out.
Before drawing on brick and concrete surfaces obryzga them slightly moisten with water.
At removal of old plaster from wooden surfaces dranochnaja the lattice often spoils. It should be corrected accurately and carefully to remove dust and a dust. At replacement of plaster by the big areas dranochnyj a layer replace completely.
Separate places of plaster on brick walls close up a limy solution, on concrete - cement, on wooden - izvestkovo-plaster, then carefully level a long rule that it was in one plane with an old covering.
a Fig. 56. Levelling nameta :
And - on a wall from below upwards; - on a wall from left to right and from right to left
Very important it is good to grind in to each other places of contact of new plaster and old. Without reliable grinding in of a junction will be allocated on the general background of a wall.
The separate repaired places and in those cases if the worker-repairman does not consider Will be allocated, what way had been jammed old plaster. If, say, it rubbed clean "тъЁѕ говую" in the same way it is necessary to rub clean and a new site, instead of "тЁрч гонку". On fig. 56, 57 levelling receptions nameta are shown.
a Fig. 57. Levelling nameta on a ceiling widened poluterkom
When entirely indoors and on separate walls and a ceiling it is necessary to replace plaster, that, having cleaned old namet and having cleared planes, conduct furnish by the same receptions, as at new building.
Sometimes repair it is necessary to make that on walls and especially on ceilings in due course there are cracks. They can be a consequence non-uniform building deposits that causes warps of partitions and, as consequence, occurrence of cracks in corners on all height of a wall. Before to start elimination of this defect, intervention of experts-builders which will put a partition into place is necessary, will strengthen it and prokonopatjat a crack tow.
Only after that also installations in corners of a metal grid spend new oshtukaturivanie.
It is necessary to face small cracks Is more often. To prepare walls and ceilings for new colouring, begin with elimination of an old paint - scratch out its scrapers, wash out planes.
Cracks and cracks knife or the end of a plaster shovel on all depth of a plaster layer. Having cleared of a dust, them moisten with water, fill with a limy solution and rub clean. The plaster solution for filling of cracks is not necessary: at tverdenii it increases in volume and on a surface there will be a hem.
However and plaster can be useful for zadelki cracks. But for this purpose it should be mixed with a chalk in the ratio 1:1 and to add a little glue - zamedlitelja shvatyvanija. A seam filled with such solution, it is necessary to jam penoplastovoj a grater. At whitewashing it is excluded (at the expense of glue) vsasyvanie whitewashing in a new seam, joints not to notice. This way I have thought up also set of times successfully applied at plaster repair.
Having removed an old paint and having closed up the cracks, all plane needs to be ground. It by means of a brush moisten with water and, using a grater, fray a limy solution.
Repair of external plaster is conducted by the same rules. As it was already told, often plaster layer here spoils because of malfunction of roofs, drains - them and it is necessary to correct, first of all. The separate places of a facade which were often becoming wet, covered with a rust, it is necessary to plaster anew, especially carefully having prepared for this purpose surfaces.
The Separate damaged or exfoliating places clear away for limits of a contour of damages on 4... 5 see Clear concrete and brick surfaces a metal brush, clear away laying seams, do a notch, wash out water.
For repair of facades application of izvestkovo-plaster solutions is not supposed. Use limy, difficult and cement mortals.
a Fig. 58. Drawing of cutting of a ground :
And - a grid; - a wave
If separate places of replaced plaster do not exceed 0,5 m 2 , it is possible to put a solution on the moistened surface in one layers. If the area is more 0,5 m 2 , a solution put in some layers. Obryzg do by more liquid solution. When the first layer will harden, a ground put more dense solution, trying not to smear weight, and with force to throw. The ground has dried up - put nakryvochnyj a layer. And, if nakryvka it is made colour or terrazitovoj by plaster the ground follows in not hardened condition not only to level, but also to cut for the best coupling with nakryvochnym a layer (fig. 58).