Having checked up a condition of the premises transferred under furnish by builders, shtukatury start preparation of surfaces.
The Planes which are subject to plaster, it is necessary to clear carefully of a dirt, a dust, fat and pitch stains, and also from the salts which have acted on a surface - the dirt reduces durability of coupling of a plaster layer with a wall. Clear walls the compressed air, brushes, scrapers, peskostrujnymi devices, wash out water.
Separate fatty stains delete, cutting down their chisel, buchardoj, continuous pollution process peskostrujnym the device. The salts which have acted on a surface, a soot, begin to flow delete the metal electrified brushes.
The Oil paint can be removed a scraper, to burn out a blowtorch. Apply also the paste softening a paint, it consists of 80% of the limy test and 20% of a water solution kausticheskoj soda. After such chemical processing the paint is easy for removing a scraper usually enough. If any of the named ways does not help, it is necessary to plaster a surface on a metal grid.
The Great value for reliable coupling rastvornoj weights with a wall has a roughness of planes. Speech here goes not about modular concrete elements of the raised factory readiness which are not subject oshtukaturivaniju and where it is necessary to rub clean only seams between stenovymi panels.
If walls are combined from the usual concrete blocks calculated on subsequent oshtukaturivanie they should be prepared specially: to cut a furrow, to notch a chisel, skarpelju, buchardoj at the small areas, and at big - to process an electric or pneumatic hammer.
In the brick walls intended under plaster, masons usually leave from the inside some pustoshovku: do not fill seams between bricks on depth 1... 1,5 see In these grooves the plaster solution will enter and will provide durability of coupling of a plaster layer. It usually happens enough, if a brick porous. If the brick has a smooth surface moreover the laying is executed with rasshivkoj seams from the inside the additional notch of walls is obligatory.
Preparation of walls under plaster in wooden buildings is Most labour-consuming. It is known that the tree and plaster on durability of connection work badly. Recollect, how the timbering from a concrete product easily separates. It is necessary to help their reliable connection especially. For this purpose wooden walls upholster to lathing. Besides, if wish to receive rather strong covering, a wall from plaster separate dobavochno felt, a bast mat and others izoljatsionnymi materials (which besides are teploizoljatsionnymi).
On felt the prostylish layer drani needs to be filled often - through 2 sm that at an overlay of a target layer the grid with cells 4X2 turned out see Having filled dran, it is necessary to moisten felt with water slightly. Then to spend obryzg a liquid pure plaster solution and it is good to smooth with the falcon or poluterkom. When the layer obryzga will seize, it is possible to start full plaster.
We Will stop more in detail on izoljatsionnyh materials and drani.
It is necessary to impregnate Felt preliminary with a corrosive sublimate solution - against ask, together with protivognilostnymi antiseptics after that it is good to dry. The bast mat should be dense, pure. Can be used and were in the use, but at all such in which transported any products containing salts.
Izoljatsionnye beat materials to vertical surfaces plaster nails along the edges in the tense condition, and to ceilings - also nails in the middle.
Felt - insufficiently strong material. Before to beat, it reel up on a stick and untwist on a measure pribivanija.
Dran - the name says that it not pilenye plates, and nadrannye, pinned. But it does not mean that they of any sizes, on the contrary, the sizes are strictly defined. For the bottom number (it is called as prostylish) select more thin dran - thickness 3... 4 mm. On top - the day off or podboechnyj - it is possible to put thicker dranitsy - 4... 5 mm. The width drani should be on all length (from 1,2 to 1,7 identical - not less than 15 and no more 20 mm.
Podbivka drani can be made as piece to lathing, and with the help dranochnyh boards. At first about piece podbivke.
Shingles krepjat to a wall nails, having them at an angle 45° in relation to a floor, also fill on distance 4... 4,5 sm one from another. Having sheathed a wall in one direction, beat over the second a layer, but already with a return bias, too at an angle 45°. Thus receive dranochnuju a grid with square cells 4X4 or 4,5X4,5 mm.
Beat shingles plaster nails, hammering through two crossings on the third, on ceilings - through one.
Podbivka piece gives to lathing the most qualitative preparation. Here between a target number and a wall surface there is a backlash equal to a thickness of a prostylish number. The solution here becomes numb and, having hardened, strongly keeps namet.
But this way is very labour-consuming. However it can be accelerated considerably, having applied the simple adaptation. It is a framework-template having cuts, corresponding to a grid which form dranitsy prostylish and target numbers. In grooves put dran. But put at first a target number, upward - prostylish, then the framework temporarily krepjat on a wall and is beaten at once by both layers drani. Quickly and economically: after all all nails which would go on a prostylish number are saved. After podbivki a framework remove. The ends the day off drani punch to a wall if it not to make, dran can warp, damage a plaster layer (this podbivku is necessary to do at any way of installation drani).
Last years when built many wooden houses and plastered them inside and outside, manufacturing dranochnyh boards conducted it is centralised in a special workshop. Engineer P A Velichko has designed for this purpose a table-template (fig. 30). It is a workbench in width 0,7 and in the length 3,2 m. Along the edges of a workbench are beaten square lugs between which place the ends drani.
a Fig. 30. A table-shabon for manufacturing dranochnyh boards on a method of the engineer of P.Velichko :
1 - a workbench for are sharp drani; 2 - places for storage of nails, intsrumenta and short drani; ready dranochnye boards; 4 - sortirovajannaja dran; 5 - a workbench-template
Boards produce from drani, sorted on prostylish and target. A part drani cut on pieces which go for packing on corners of boards. A prostylish number, then the day off stack at first. Laid dran slightly force down plaster nails so that their ends came to light on 4... 5 mm. For zabivki nails apply the special hammer also designed by P.A.Velichko (fig. 31). the Drummer of a hammer can be regulated to hammer in nails on necessary depth.
a Fig. 31. A hammer of a design of P.Velichko :
1 - the handle; 2 - a box for nails; 3 - a funnel for nails; 4 - the drummer
Two workers who are on either side of a workbench take part In manufacturing of boards.
There is also one more way of manufacturing dranochnyh boards - wattled. But, as practice shows, thus there are no necessary backlashes under lathing and durability of plaster from it decreases. And in places of an interlacing of shingles considerable thickenings (if shingles take thicker 3 mm) turn out, it conducts to drawing of thicker touch. Therefore boards-pletenki apply seldom.
a Fig. 32. Preparation of places of contact of wooden and stone designs :
1 - a wall wooden; 2 - a wall brick; 3 - a metal grid; 4 - dranochnyj a board
Happens that in a finished premise wooden designs adjoin with stone or concrete (fig. 32). In such cases a joint line sheathe a metal grid.
We still will meet use of a metal grid when it is necessary to make big namet (more than 25 mm) or to execute any architectural detail.
Durability of plaster is guaranteed by its thickness: no more than 18 mm on a tree and 15 mm on a brick and concrete. Namet in 25 mm without a grid suppose only in exceptional cases when in separate small places it is necessary to level curvature of a wall.
Curve walls - a trouble of the dresser. It has no right to leave them with such defects. And, adjustment of vertical position of walls, horizontal positions of ceilings will be naturally, its duty at premise acceptance.
It is necessary to tell that insistence degree to accuracy of plaster is not always identical. Distinguish four principal views: simple, improved, high-quality (it still name majachnoj) and decorative plaster.
Simple plaster is resolved in time structures, cellars, warehouses - in all buildings concerning III class. At this way it is required to moisten surfaces, to clear them of a dust, to make obryzg, namet and to level last a rule or easier falcon.
Corners of window and door slopes, pilasters, columns level poluterkom. At this way of a wall not proveshivajut also do not check a rule.
The Improved plaster too does not demand proveshivanija. Except obryzga and a ground here still put nakryvochnyj an elephant. Levelling is conducted more carefully: after a rule a plane pass still a wooden grater with the layer of felt attached to it or polyfoam.
The improved plaster Is applied to furnish of public buildings (schools, hospitals, kindergartens), industrial buildings and subsidiary premises of the raised class, and also for oshtukaturivanija facades of buildings without special architectural registration. In apartment houses her you will meet extremely seldom.
The Most labour-consuming, different the big accuracy and high requirements to aesthetic perception - high-quality and decorative plasters. The first is widely applied in the housing construction, the second - to furnish both external walls, and internal premises and separate interiors of office buildings, objects of cultural and community appointment ( about decorative plaster ).