More often reason of marriage is oshtukaturivanie crude surfaces. If you have finished with their izvestkovo-plaster solution the solution at first will seize as if it is reliable. But then, absorbing a moisture of the basic surface, it it is indispensable razmoknet that will move to otsloeniju coverings.
The Serious error is oshtukaturivanie external walls earlier, than internal. The moisture evaporating from walls presses in this case more strongly on an internal covering, than on external - after all internal plaster always less strong, than external. Therefore vspuchivanija and otsloenija are shown before all and with special force on internal walls.
Dampness of the basic surfaces inevitably leads to formation on plaster of stains, strips - vysolok, appearing owing to subsidence on a surface of the various salts brought with the evaporating moisture from depths of a laying. If the laying has been well dried, the salts which are available in it, do not act. Therefore more rationally prior to the beginning of plaster to dry a laying, instead of the ready plaster laid on a crude surface. So it is necessary to arrive in the event that as speak, "ёЁюъш яюфцшьр¦=" "юс·хъ= уюЁш=" - and you will be as a result in a prize.
Can happen so that walls have dried well, but have insufficiently taken care of isolating a building from penetration into walls of ground waters, or have not cleaned a leak in a roof, in water and heating pipes - then plaster damage is inevitable.
For prevention of penetration of a moisture and snow in walls outside it is necessary to isolate from a rain reliably the bottom parts of a building, applying vodoizoljatsionnye plasters.
With the defects caused by dampness, it is necessary to struggle, first of all, eliminating the reasons of occurrence of this dampness. And already appeared vysolki should be removed to the plaster basis, these places are well cleaned and anew plastered on well dried wall. Thus seams in a laying coat with a cement mortal on tserezite. The Same solution goes for the first layer nameta.
It was already said that plaster cannot be conducted until the building will not settle, rule non-observance attracts occurrence of the most various sedimentary cracks. Zadelku they should be conducted very carefully that they have not revived again. Cracks clear away on all depth and on width on 3... 5 see Tap plaster around, delete poorly keeping namet. Crack and place edges where plaster is beaten off, humidify. A solution take slightly stronger than the core, put its several layers serially, allowing to the previous layer to seize.
If cracks are numerous, it is better to remove all plaster coat in this place and to impose the new.
Often otlupy occur that workers were too lazy to prepare properly planes for furnish, the dirt and a dust have not been removed, the notch of smooth concrete or brick walls is not made, too dry surface is not humidified.
At last, cracks and otlupy necessarily will appear, if plaster fragile, unsteady surfaces. There will be they and in places where the surfaces having a different moisture capacity (for example, a tree and a brick, a brick and concrete adjoin). Recollect (we already said about it) that places of contacts of a tree and a brick should before oshtukaturivaniem be sheathed a metal grid. Demand special attention of a place where the brick is adjoined by concrete, for example a concrete crosspiece over a window. Here advise in the first plaster coat to apply a cement mortal with tserezitom or emulsiej PVA.
As the Reason otsloenija plasters can serve not only the wall crude or not prepared properly, but also a number of other negligences by direct manufacture of painting and decorating.
Here, for example, the plastered wall cover with an oil paint. And suddenly through any time the surface starts to be shelled. What is the trouble? It appears, the finishing plaster coat has absorbed in itself painting structure and after drying was compressed more than the bottom layers. It would not occur, if the ground was not too dry or smooth when on it imposed nakryvochnyj a plaster coat.
It is necessary to remember and such rule: it is impossible to put a strong layer of a solution on less strong. Thus otsloenie the top layer from weaker bottom it is inevitable. So happens, if on a limy ground to put nakryvku from a cement mortal. If it is impossible to avoid such undesirable neighbourhood follows for strong coupling, first of all, well to humidify a ground and to use dirty cement, and an izvestkovo-cement mortal (as a last resort - low-fat cement).
Now for partitions use various plates, blocks, put also ready gipsobetonnye partitions in the size on a room. Their furnish demands certain skills.
If to you there was a wall from plaster plates and it is necessary to cover it with cement plaster, do not forget it to cover with cement milk preliminary. It will prevent absorption by plates of a moisture from a solution and otsloenie the last.
Are artful gipsobetonnye partitions. They have appeared rather recently and, probably, not all know, how with them to address.
Gipsobetonnye of a partition should be notched and otgruntovat 8... 10%-s' emulsiej PVA. But to do it it is necessary before the drawing obryzga. If to make a first coat in advance it will lose the properties, will dry up, and the solution will not stick to a wall. Having made obryzg a liquid solution, a partition maintain 10... 12 ch and only after that put a ground, allow to it to dry up completely. The matter is that gipsobetonnye panels are subject korobleniju. Possible curvatures should be corrected at nakryvke. For an obverse layer use a solution from dry mixes, add the limy dough and 10%-s' emulsiju PVA.
Happens that partitions put from two layers gipsobetonnyh plates. Here koroblenie it is shown especially strongly, after all plaster only one party of each plate that causes non-uniformity of internal pressure in a design. It is offered to connect bolts both plates. Bolts put in the middle of a plate through 1,5... 2 m on all length of a partition.
It is separately necessary to stop on the reasons of defects of external plaster which are caused by its finding in special adverse conditions.
External plaster, as a rule, do not conduct - a frost its enemy in the winter. However, it appears, and in the summer it has serious enough enemy - the sun. If on the sun without shelter the box with a solution is left, from it water quickly evaporates. The solution starts to seize and the plaster layer from it will be fragile.
Threatens with marriage and fast drying of a solution on a wall if this wall have not protected from direct solar beams. Losing the water necessary for tverdenija, plaster "ёуюЁрх=" loses durability and falls off. In hot weather it is not recommended to plaster facades. If such possibility is not present, it is necessary to moisten plentifully a laying and the put ground, to cover a trimmed surface with a bast mat or boards.
At plaster of facades requirements to durability of coupling nakryvochnogo a layer with a ground are especially high. After all the top, very thin layer constantly tests on itself influence of a moisture of air, absorbs this moisture. But here has warmed the sun, and the top layer quickly gives a moisture, is compressed. If it reliably is not connected with a ground, otsloenie is inevitable.