We Will consider execution of some plasters of a special purpose.
Waterproofing plasters it is possible to receive a way a hook named torkretirovanija or introduction in a solution of special condensing additives.
Torkretnye of plaster are widely applied in the premises which are exposed to strong humidifying. With them finish crude cellars, swimming pools, water basins.
Drawing torkretnyh plasters on a plane is made by means of a cement-gun (fig. 2 see), the complete set with which includes the compressor, an air cleaner and a number of other necessary subjects.
Process torkretirovanija consists in the following. The dry mix of cement with the dried up sand (gartsovka) under the pressure of compressed air on a hose arrives in cement-gun, and therefrom to raspylitelnoj to an atomizer. Here on other hose water which moistens gartsovku - and this mix under the pressure of 0,2 arrives... 0,35 MPa it is put on a finished surface.
The Dry mix make in the ratio cement and sand 1:1,5... 1:4,4. As knitting take portlandtsement or putstsolanovyj portlandtsement necessary mark.
The Special attention is demanded by sand. Sand quartz without the impurity, washed out and dried up, ostrozernistyj, different krupnosti is necessary. The first krupnost - 1,5 mm, the second - 1 mm, the third - passing without the rest through a sieve about 250 otv/sm 2 . On 5 parts of the first krupnosti take 3 parts the second and 1 part of the third krupnosti.
A Surface which is subject torkretirovaniju, diligently clear. If it is a bricklaying, clear away seams on depth 1 see From the concrete bases delete exfoliating parts, embroider cracks and zachekanivajut their cement mortal. Concrete surfaces notch.
Can happen so that it is necessary to spend a design waterproofing, own which durability of a material below durability torkretnoj plasters. Then it is necessary to sheathe preliminary such surface the metal grid tense on a skeleton from steel armature rigidly, reliably attached to surface.
Torkretnuju put plaster in some layers. The first layer 5... 6 mm subsequent - 8... 10 mm. The subsequent layer can be put only in a day after shvatyvanija the previous. Before drawing of each new layer a surface carefully wash out water.
Everyone svezheulozhennyj should be protected a layer from frosts, from fast drying (to cover straw floor-mats, bast mats, often to moisten with water). It is necessary to look after all plaster coat within 10 days.
The Thickness torkretnoj plasters is defined by the construction project. Usually a layer in 25... 30 mm already guarantee a reliable waterproofing.
Cement plasters with condensing additives now are applied rather seldom. The most used additive - tserezit. If you meet it on building first of all remember that it is necessary to handle with care with it: it is necessary to preserve against drying in the summer - to store in the cool place protected from solar beams, to store in premises with temperature not below the zero in the winter.
Components tserezitovogo a solution: cement and sand in the ratio 1:2... 1:3 which shut tserezitovym milk (one part tserezita on 10 parts of water). Before the use tserezitovogo its milk it is necessary to mix carefully.
The Ready solution should be started up at once in business: it seizes in 30 minutes Therefore shut in its small portions. 0,5 kg are spent for 1 m 2 plasters on tserezitovom structure milk 1:0 at a thickness of plaster of 2 sm tserezita. This calculation is not casually given on 1 m 2 plasters in the thickness of 2 sm - for one namet it is impossible to put thicker layer.
Fresh plaster needs to be protected from fast drying, a frost, concussions. After solution hardening on its drying it is required about 4 days. Only after that the surface will be water-proof.
Sodium Aluminate concerns waterproofing additives. As it was already told, sodium aluminate is unsafe, razdrazhajushche operates on a skin and mucous membranes. To work with such solutions it is necessary in points, rubber boots and gloves, in an apron. It is necessary to have near at hand 1%-s' solution of acetic acid or 1,5%-s' solution of two-carbonic soda - for rendering assistance at burns.
The Structure of a solution with sodium aluminate is that: putstsolanovyj portlandtsement marks 400 and sand in the relation 1:2. At first prepare a dry cement-sandy mix and shut its water with the maintenance 2... 3% of aluminate of sodium to the necessary consistence. Prepare small portions of a solution: it quickly seizes. The air temperature thus should be not more low 5°Р. Apply these solutions for oshtukaturivanija crude not drying out brick and concrete surfaces.
Apply solutions on liquid glass (kalievom) is much more often. They give water-proof kislotostojkuju plaster.
Liquid glass store in hermetically sealed container.
The Mix of cement with sand shut liquid glass in density 1,4... 1,42, dissolved in water in the ratio 1:5... 1:10 (liquid glass: water). Concentration of a solution is defined by laboratory.
To Shut a solution it is necessary in the small portions as it too quickly seizes. It put on a wall in the usual way: a layer obryzga, a layer of earth. On nakryvochnyj a layer take a usual cement-sandy solution - liquid glass collapses under the influence of carbonic gas of air. A nakryvochnyj layer carefully rub clean or zheleznjat.
Process zheleznenija considerably increases density of plaster and its water resistance. Jammed and still damp enough surface from a fat cement mortal of structure 1:2... 1:2,5 strew dry cement and strong grind in steel gladilkoj until the plane will turn black and will get metal shine.
To prevent occurrence of cracks (especially if in a solution it is used putstsolanovyj portlandtsement), zheleznennuju a surface it is necessary 1... 3 times a day plentifully to moisten with water and to continue it during 7... 10 days
For noise level decrease there are various sound-proof (acoustic) plasters.
A Surface intended for a covering by acoustic plaster, preliminary cover with a layer of earth from usual cement-sandy раствоpa structure 1:3.5... 1:4 (portlandtsement marks 400:: sand) with addition of 10% of the limy test. A layer of acoustic plaster put on only slightly seized ground, do not smooth down, and only level poluterkom. In x-ray offices of polyclinics and hospitals it is necessary to cover walls rentgenozashchitnoj with plaster.
The Water cement relation should not exceed 1,4. Therefore before the barite use define percent of its humidity and consider it at water addition - surplus of water sharply worsens durability of plaster.
Prepare baritovye solutions, as well as usual. A thickness rentgenozashchitnogo a layer define under the project.
Shtukaturu should be known that works with baritovymi solutions can be conducted at air temperature not more low 15°Р. It is necessary to finish at once all plane - to join rentgenozashchitnuju plaster it is impossible.