Softeners concern to to special additives - to very numerous family. Various additives are capable to give to solutions and the most various properties.
Plastifitsirujushchih of additives too is a lot of.
Clay - natural sedimentary breed. In plaster solutions it is applied in quality plastifitsirujushchej additives. The best results are given by application of clay in the form of the liquid test.
In clay-softener organic substances in such quantities at which clay is painted in dark colour should not contain. Soluble salts in quantity which can cause occurrence vytsvetov are counter-indicative also. Before to apply clay in a solution, it is necessary for checking up in laboratory.
Concentrates sulfitno-spirit bards (SSB) - cellulose production wastes. Are issued in liquid, firm and poroshkoobraznom a kind. Protection from humidifying demand. Are applied as softener of cement mortals. Are entered in number of 0,1... 0,15% (counting on a solid) weights of cement. Action SSB depends on a cement chemical compound. Therefore quantity of this softener recommend to specify in certain cases by practical consideration.
Softener ЦНИПС-1 - omylennyj a wood pitch. It is applied as the additive to cement mortals. By the form it is paste of black colour. Bring it usually on building in paper bags in weight of 15 kg. To receive the necessary additive (a water solution), bag contents (15 kg) plant, vigorously stirring, in 200 l warmed up to 20... 30СС waters. To store such solution it is possible no more than 7 days.
Usually apply 3... 6 l of a solution of softener ЦПИПС-1 on 1 m 3 a cement mortal. More exact quantity is recommended to be established by practical consideration.
Mylonaft - soaps insoluble in water of organic acids. Demands the cautious reference with it: storages in specially taken away places, in special container, protection against solar beams and an atmospheric precipitation.
Mylonaft - softener for cement mortals. The expense it define by practical consideration. Usually it makes about 3 l on 1 m 3 a solution.
Active mineral (hydraulic) additives. These additives (natural and artificial) mix in tonkoizmelchennom a kind with air izvestju, shut water and receive the dough which, having started to harden in air, can continue to harden and under water.
Natural hydraulic additives concern:
- diatomity - the rocks representing a congestion of armours of ancient seaweed, nowadays amorphous kremnezem. In a friable condition of 1 m 3 diatomita weighs 300... 700 kg;
- trepely - too mountain kremnezemistye breeds. They it is heavier diatomitov: 1 m 3 weighs 600... 800 kg;
- opoki - condensed diatomity and trepely;
- volcanic peply - can meet in the nature in the form of friable deposits or partially condensed adjournment;
- tufy - strongly condensed, stsementirovannye peply, density of a stone 1100... 1300 kg/m 3 . A version tufov - the lines, which density in the crushed condition 800... 1000 kg/m 3 ;
- pumice - the easiest kamnevidnaja the breed having a porous spongy structure. Its density about 400 kg/m 3 .
Artificial hydraulic additives concern:
- kremnezemistye a waste received at extraction of alumina from clay;
- burnt clay - them receive, it is artificial burning clay and uglistye slates. Sometimes these breeds ignite spontaneously in the thrown sailings and empty mine breeds, giving ready burnt clay;
- fuel ashes and slags - are firm also a product of burning of some kinds of fuel;
- the domain granulated slags - receive at pig-iron melt. They are necessary for cooling quickly to give fine-grained structure.
the Additives which are slowing down shvatyvanie , it is necessary to enter into cement mortals very seldom. To it resort only when on any special works term gustenija is necessary slowed down against usual. Then to portlandtsementam add sernokisloe iron or a weak solution of sulfuric acid.
And, on the contrary, it is very frequent zamedliteli shvatyvanija are necessary at work with a plaster solution.
Almost pure plaster solution is not applied, to it add izvest. Pure plaster already through 4 mines starts to seize, and the termination shvatyvanija comes not later than 30 minutes the Izvestkovo-plaster solution has considerably big terms shvatyvanija. If it is not enough of it, add animal glue, to a drill.
At introduction in a glue solution it is necessary to add and kausticheskuju soda at a rate of 1,5% of weight of glue. If it not to make, glue can decay.
Liquid kleeizvestkovyj zamedlitel shvatyvanija plaster it is most accessible to preparation in the conditions of building and it is widely applied. As a part of its animal glue (tiled galerita or liquid), izvest-pushonka or the limy dough and water.
Tiled glue preliminary presoak in water on 8... 12 ch - before full swelling. Then one part of glue and one part (on weight) to exhaust place in a copper and fill in with five parts of water. Allow to begin to boil, then, stirring slowly, weary on small fire 4... 5 ch. At a bookmark on a copper riskoj mark contents level (it should not be above 2/3 volumes of a copper), in process of evaporation add water to risks.
The Glutinous solution after cooking dilute with cold water so that on each kg of the welded glue in recalculation on a solid it was necessary 9 l of water. Such zamedlitel has 10%-s' concentration.
How to define, how many zamedlitelja it is necessary on zames an izvestkovo-plaster solution or plaster mastics?
For example, for reception of an izvestkovo-plaster solution of 10 l can be placed in water for it zatvorenija 0,1 l zamedlitelja. From this calculation it is necessary to prepare a small portion of a solution and through each 5 mines to lower in it and at once to take out a piece of a wire in diameter 1,5... 2 mm. Through any time the trace on a solution after the next lowering of a wire will cease to swim away - the solution has lost fluidity. It is necessary to note time from the beginning zatvorenija before fluidity loss. If this time is more than 50 mines the dose zamedlitelja should be reduced if it is less 35 mines - to increase.
Exist still powder zamedliteli shvatyvanija a solution, for example, the most widespread powder BS. But powder zamedliteli demand special conditions for solution preparation, on building sites it is impossible to make them. Them bring here in a ready kind.
Having defined by practical consideration or under the recipe the necessary quantity zamedlitelja, it fill in (liquid) or fall asleep (powder) in water for zatvorenija a solution, mix before full dissolution (30... 45, then other components fall asleep and mix before reception of a homogeneous plastic mix.