Starting furnish of door and window apertures, shtukatur should hang the directing first of all. For this purpose serve usually wooden rejki. There was time when them nailed up to a wall. It is far not the best way. First, correct position directing to achieve difficultly. Secondly, nails are spent in considerable quantities. And, thirdly, not in each wall it is possible to tyre out a nail easily. It goes to a tree easily. If walls brick though and hardly, but into a seam in a nail you will hammer. And try in the concrete!
Differently adapted shtukatury. For example, used screw reechnyj a clip (fig. 47). the Sharp end of a core of a clip stick in the window block. The flange with the handle can move on a carving put on the top part of a core. Moving a flange, rejku drive into the corner.
a Fig. 47. Screw reechnyj a clip :
1 - a core with a carving; 2 - a flange; 3 - a core; 4 - a tip
I Have offered and other way of installation directing - with the help "яЁшьюЁрцштрэш " them. Arrive here the same as at the device of wooden beacons "эр яЁшёюё" about what I already told. Take specially prepared rejki in the width 10... 12 sm, thickness 2 see On all height rejki some apertures - for simplification of weight and the best coupling with a solution are drilled. On the one hand a plate prostrugivajut, with another leave rough - too for the best coupling.
On that place where it is necessary to establish rejku, throw a layer of the filtered limy solution, impose on it rejku neostrogannoj the party, press, check vertical position a rule with a plumb.
Such way twice raises labour productivity of the worker establishing rejki, besides and nails become unnecessary, and without screw reechnogo a clip it is possible to manage.
There, where there is waste of dry plaster, will advise directing rejki to do of this material. Prepare from it strips in width 4... 5 sm also paste them along the edges of slopes on sulfitno-plaster or gipsoopilochnoj to mastic. More conveniently and faster on usenok a window slope to impose a corner from dry plaster with sides 5... 6 sm (how such corner to make, read in gl. "Грьхэш=хыш monolithic °=ѕър=ѕЁъш"). After installation of a corner correctness it check a rule with a plumb. The remained area of a slope plaster and rub clean zapodlitso with a corner. Arrive the same as at use of beacons from dry plaster, do not forget podmazat mastic and edges of corners to avoid cracks.
By the way, at a wet way of furnish of a strip of dry plaster help to strengthen places of an adjunction of true boxes to walls. Builders know, what exactly cracks in these parts in due course usually appear. Take a strip of dry plaster, it should be wider on 5 sm bruska to which the box is attached. The strip should come on a partition or a wall. Then on brusok and a wall a continuous layer put sulfitno-plaster mastic, impose the prepared strip, grease the same mastic of an edge, press and check control rejkoj with a plumb.
The Strip of dry plaster can serve and a beacon for the further furnish of a wall by a solution.
Now we will talk about very important condition of qualitative processing of window and door slopes. The matter is that slopes not prjamougolny. The internal plane is a little developed aside from a frame, forming with a wall an obtuse angle - it name "ѕуюы Ёрёётх=р". Without it the aperture would look ugly, muffled. After all not casually people have entitled an obtuse angle on a slope, underlining its importance in light exposure of a premise.
But an obtuse angle for builders - additional efforts. How to calculate a corner on which it is necessary to develop a slope? There is for a long time an established rule: the slope should be developed so that its deviation from a frame at wall level was equal Vio depths of an aperture from a wall to a frame.
How arrived earlier? The worker measured depth of an aperture, defined one tenth from this number. Did according to it of the necessary length planochku, filled it perpendicularly on one of the parties of a wooden square. The second party put to a frame. The start small planochki also showed a place to which it is necessary to develop a slope. Agree that such technology does work long, inexact. And squares with reechkami you will not save enough, hammering endlessly in nails.
Having thought, I have made an inventory metal square (fig. 48). It consists of two rulers in length of 60 both 15 sm and in the width 2,5 Rulers see are fastened by rivets with each other at right angle. On a long ruler centimetric and semicentimetric divisions, in the middle at it a long cut. The third ruler-cursor in length of 10 sm is necessary still and in the width 2 see In it too the cut of the same width, as in a long ruler is chosen. On a cursor too centimetric divisions.
a Fig. 48. An inventory square for definition of a corner of a dawn of a window aperture :
1 - a short ruler; 2 - a long ruler; 3 - a cursor
Having imposed a cursor on a long ruler, them fasten through cuts the general lambskin bolt.
Work, basically, goes, as well as on an old wooden square. Resting against a frame the short party of a metal square, define on the long party depth of an aperture. Then establish here a cursor. Put forward it towards a slope on 1/м depths of an aperture, do a mark in a window sill. The same gaugings make on an opposite slope and on window top.
Only having defined position of a corner of a dawn, put according to it directing rejki.
At a window distinguish internal and external slopes, between frames - zaglushina. All these places demand furnish.
Now, the truth, in mass housing construction you, perhaps, will not meet windows with zaglushinami. Everywhere apply the coupled windows-blocks where an external and internal frame adjoin.
For furnish of slopes at the coupled frames it is possible to use kalibrovochnuju malku (fig. 49). It make from pine or fur-tree bruska in the size 600x85 mm. From one end at it kalibrovochnyj cut, other end is cut at an angle 30°. Having outlined on a slope a solution, working puts malku kalibrovochnym cut on a window frame, and the working plane leans on directing rejku or a corner from dry plaster. Moving malku from below upwards and from top to down, conduct solution levelling.
a Fig. 49. Kalibrovochnaja malka for furnish of slopes :
And - work malkoj; - a general view malki;
1 - rejka "эр яЁшёюё" or a beacon from waste GKL; 2 - malka; 3 - a limy solution