Columns under the form happen different: cylindrical, konusnye, rectangular, many-sided, bochkoobraznye. They can be smooth, with kanneljurami, with spiral draught, can be supplied by bases and capitals simple or difficult. All demand from the executor of high qualification, patience, attentiveness and knowledge of technology inherent in everyone kind.
Smooth cylindrical columns plaster on ring beacons (fig. 81).
a Fig. 81. Beacons for oshtukaturivanija smooth cylindrical columns :
1 - a plaster ring beacon; 2 - a template-ring
In the beginning do provesku and establish marks. On height they should be small and on width to 2 Corners of marks see remove on a cone. Put marks koltseobrazno in some numbers on column height. Distance between numbers 1... 1,5 m.
On numbers of marks follows, then to form ring beacons. For this purpose prepare a template-ring. Force down a board from boards in the thickness 3... 4 see On an axial line of a board mark grooves of fastening of the future two halves of a curve which is necessary for making of a board. In the centre it draw a circle corresponding to diameter of a beacon. A board saw half-and-half, cut a circle. On the marks made earlier cut out grooves and form thorns "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=" for connection of two halves.
Working sides of a template-ring moisten with water or grease with the limy test and strengthen on marks. Under a ring throw a pure plaster solution. Having allowed to a beacon to seize, a template remove.
Then a column ground and by means of a rule 3, which slides on beacons 1, level a solution (fig. 82).
a Fig. 82. Oshtukaturivanie cylindrical columns on ring beacons:
1 - a ring beacon; 2 - a thickness nameta; 3 - a rule; 4 - a plumb
Very important after a first coat carefully to cut down plaster beacons and these places to fill with the same cement mortal to what the ground is put.
Also it is possible to finish Round columns, applying templates. For this purpose a column on length divide on two equal parts. Outside of first half of cross-section section of a column put vertical directing rejki on which the semitemplate (half ring) will move. Similar operation repeat and on second half of column. The places which have remained from reek, rub clean.
It is possible to finish with the Same way direct many-sided columns (fig. 83).
a Fig. 83. Vytjagivanie a plaster layer on shestigrannoj and a many-sided column by means of a template :
1 - a rule; 2 - polozok; 3 - a sled
Round columns with entazisom. These columns have below a cylindrical part, and the top part - konusnuju. However, if these both parts to plaster and level direct rules, on a joint cylindrical and konusnoj parts the appreciable break as if the column trunk in this place is bent would be formed.
That it does not happen, a direct rule level only the bottom cylindrical part, and to the top part apply a rule-curve on entazise.
What is entazis? The word this Greek also is literally translated as "эряЁ цхэшх". The curve on entazise is under construction so that on a place of a joint cylindrical and konusnoj parts some thickening of a trunk is formed. It also gives impression of intensity and eliminates concavity illusion.
Plaster columns with entazisom too on ring beacons. But for different pieces of a column it is necessary to do templates-rings different in diameter (fig. 84).
a Fig. 84. Oshtukaturivanie cylindrical columns with entazisom on ring beacons :
1 - a ring beacon; 2 - a plumb; 3 - a shalon-curve entazisa; 4 - a thickness nameta