There is one more way of furnish - so-called cast plaster. It is possible to consider rational its application at the big front of plaster works or at furnish of false ceilings. In due time I had to be engaged much in it, and for expansion of an outlook today's shtukaturov I will tell, how it becomes.
Earlier in public buildings false ceilings were applied widely. In such "тючфѕ°э№§ =юээхы §" placed various technical distributings. "¤юыюь" the tunnel was served suspended on the necessary height on a reliable skeleton by a metal grid which then plastered.
In hotel "¦юёътр" on each floor it is more than bathrooms 50. Was from what for a head to seize. Here, you want you do not want, and you will reflect, you search for any exit. It has been decided to try to plaster not from below a metal grid, and to fill in on it a solution from above, having made, of course, the necessary timbering. The height of the pendant tunnel was sufficient - 1 m, in a ceiling there were hatches. Have made easy boards: a framework from bruskov have upholstered with plywood. Have dissolved in kerosene stearin and from the working party have greased with it plywood that then the timbering is easier departed. Have made provesku, have put marks and to them on props brought boards. One worker was in the hatch, from above filled in and levelled a solution. The second submitted a solution shut not too dense, - that passed through a grid is better. Removed boards through 3... 4 ch, cleared them and again started up in business. On ready sites started draught of eaves. And as a whole the brigade in 6 times has exceeded labour productivity on this operation. So cast plaster was born.
On false ceilings business has not come to an end. The known civil engineer those years N. M.Kurek has developed a way of pouring not only ceilings, but also walls.
Into the complete set of adaptations necessary for it enter a special portable inventory timbering and karniznye forms (fig. 44).
a Fig. 44. A timbering for cast plaster :
And - a board for casting of plaster of walls: - forms for casting of eaves (at the left - average, on the right - angular); in - zavertysh for fastening of forms and boards; g - a screw jack of racks for fastening of ceiling boards
As the Timbering for walls and a ceiling vertical both horizontal easy and strong boards with a rigid skeleton from bruskov and the plywood of 4 mm fitted by an oilcloth on waterproof glue serve in the thickness. The timbering resulted on fig. 44 is most simple and convenient, and.
Ceiling boards differ from stenovyh only in the way of their connection. Here it is used shipovoe connection (on one edge of a board there are thorns, on the second - nests). Besides, in junctions from below there is still rejka, a closing crack. In stenovyh boards vertical seams carefully prokonopachivajutsja.
For casting of eaves angular and direct forms (fig. 44 are necessary. the size of the party of the angular form depends on profile height (it should be not less than 40 sm) and the sizes direct (averages) forms. Direct forms happen different length - depending on the size of a premise.
Karniznye of the form prepare so that the direct sites (excuses) of eaves coming on a ceiling and a wall, there were on extent not less than 20 sm - after all they serve further as beacons for furnish of a ceiling and walls.
The Internal surface karniznyh forms do not upholster with an oilcloth, and carefully shpakljujut and paint an oil paint. Before form use its internal surface grease with a stearin solution in kerosene.
Preparation under cast plaster on walls make in the usual way. On timbering perimetre arrange vertical beacons, and also put a horizontal beacon along a floor. A solution for beacons - plaster.
As to ceilings first of all it is necessary to tell that their pouring can be carried out only in the event that in premises wearing floors are not made yet.
In this case, first of all, it is necessary to take care of how to create safety and conveniences to work shtukaturov: after all cannot and have no right they to work on a floor, gaping as emptiness. Builders are obliged to make it both running floorings, and protections. If this condition is observed, start ceiling preparation (fig. 45).
a Fig. 45. Ceiling preparation under cast plaster :
And - podbika a ceiling rejkami and a shingle under cast plaster; - a cut on the ceiling filled in with plaster:
1 - a beam of overlappings; 2 - rejka; 3 - dran
On a ceiling on wooden beams or crossbars do filing from trapezoid reek with backlashes 50... 60 mm also line with its shingle. Last of 80 mm (fig. 45 have perpendicularly rejkam with a gleam.
Begin furnish with installation simultaneously in all four corners of angular forms of eaves. That the solution did not follow from them, end faces of forms sheathe plywood zapodlitso with the top part to which it is sewn centimetric onboard rejka. The bottom part forms (excuse) grease a plaster solution and krepjat steel rejkoderzhatelem, and the top part - screws-zavertyshami.
The Timbering can be removed through 30 mines after pouring. But to do it it is necessary rather cautiously, slightly tapping with a wooden hammer on edges of rigidity of the form.
The Form for direct sites of eaves should lay down densely on ready edges of a corner as on beacons, coming on everyone not less than on 10... 15 see
On walls it is necessary to put a ground on beacons in width 50 see That forms of eaves laid down densely, edges of edges it is necessary podmazat a plaster solution.
Having cast direct sites of eaves and having removed a timbering, it is impossible to forget that it is necessary to smooth out immediately joints, to clear away corners, to cut off flows if the such were formed.
At once it is necessary to wash out carefully a timbering warm water. This rule should be carried out strictly not only in relation to karniznym to forms, but also to boards. Cleanliness, ideally equal surface of a working part - pledge of excellent quality of cast plaster. In addition at the good maintenance the timbering will truly serve and long. I remember that it sufficed us on 100... 150 otlivok. And after that changed only an oilcloth - and again in business for the same long term.
So, the eaves are cast. Now turn behind a ceiling. Horizontal boards establish on eaves excuses, as on beacons. From below prop up racks with jacks and carefully verify vaterpasom and rejkoj.
The Solution on a timbering fill in from the top floor. To do it it is necessary very quickly. Not to wait for giving of a solution and not to waste time, it is necessary to use special boxes with a sliding shutter. There fill in at once weight which would be on 8 enough... 10 m 2 surfaces. At need simultaneously work with two, three boxes. A solution apply plastic, as dense sour cream. Moving a box, quickly fill in the next piece, watch that the solution got under beams and crossbars. There and then level poluterkom zapodlitso with rejkami. In half an hour boards remove - the ceiling is ready.
Last operation - pouring of walls. Vertical position of a timbering as strictly check on a plumb. Here it is necessary to conduct work in some circles. Begin from a floor.
Fill in the first row and maintain 30 mines, boards remove and establish them above. As a horizontal beacon the bottom number of ready plaster now serves.
So, moving a timbering, reach a ceiling where boards lay down, as on a beacon, on the bottom excuse of eaves.
The Timbering is easy, convenient in installation, can long serve. For work with it enough two persons.
For the sake of justice it is necessary to tell that today dressers though sometimes and use an irrational timbering, but have found an interesting way of its fastening. Earlier krepili boards racks with jacks (this jack is shown on fig. 44. others arrive differently. provesiv a surface and having established marks on corners of a metal skeleton to which the metal grid is attached, hang up metal collars. Into collars insert a board of a timbering and krepjat it from below wedges. It is impossible to disagree that such method is more attractive, than use of racks with jacks. And if thus to use still easy inventory boards - a timbering will work at all incomparably faster and more conveniently.
A bit later, when we will speak about furnish of prefabrication houses from details of the raised factory readiness, will be told, how even the knowledge of receptions of cast plaster here helps.