Except the decorative plasters resulted above three kinds - izvestkovo-sandy, terrazitovyh and stone - there are some more kinds of furnish which is carried out shtukaturami. Nazvovem their art plaster. We will get acquainted with some of them.
Decorative inserts. This way apply, when the plastered wall is to be recovered any ornament, to make any inscription, a frieze.
On the plastered surface a chisel accurately cut down a place of the future insert, diligently level edges. On the cleared place put a cement mortal (1:2 or 1:3) or a difficult solution (1:1:5 or 1:1:6). On a fresh solution put selected for an ornament metlahskuju or a small tile of a carpet mosaic. It is possible to type drawing from slices of a tile of one or different colours.
The Tile establish on a cord and a plumb, check a rule. Sometimes inserts do even from brick shchebenki, pressing it into a fresh solution. It is not necessary to take for inserts glazurovannuju a tile, as glaze nemorozostojka.
Kistevaja plaster. You need to paint a wall with reliable, durable structure. kistevaja plaster for this purpose suits. Yes, instead of a paint habitual to us special plaster solutions which are put in a painting way - a brush from rough hair or even a bast sometimes act.
Kistevaja plaster represents the thin colour decorative structure consisting from mixed knitting with addition tonkomolotoj of a stone flour, has density of liquid sour cream.
After mixing portlandtsementa and a stone flour a dry mix shut limy milk. If the structure appears dense, it plant with water.
It is necessary to apply fat izvest the first grade. A brick flour (it can be replaced marble, limy, tuff, pumiceous, dolomite or trepelom) it is necessary to grind and sift well through a sieve with cells of 0,15 mm. For podtsvetki in izvestkovo-cement structure it is possible to add ohru, a mummy and other earthen pigments.
If a crude layer kistevoj plasters protortsevat a brush-tortsovkoj or a wire brush, it is possible to receive a surface "яюф яхёёрэшъ".
If a stone flour to grind as it is thin, as well as cement, and into paint structure to enter it twice less, than in the specified recipes, we will receive a solution on a consistence same as painting paints and consequently, and to put it it will be possible a usual spray.
Presence of a stone flour allows such paints to be stronger than the limy: the stone flour creates a strong reinforcing skeleton.
Furnish by punching. Svezhenanesennyj nakryvochnyj the layer from a good plastic solution can be processed various stamps or prokatat the rubber platen with relief drawings.
The wall Finished in such a way usually paint an oil paint.
Sgraffito. The word Italian and in transfer means this "т№чрЁрярээ№щ". It also defines a principle of the given way of furnish: vytsarapyvanie drawing on a layer of the colour plaster put on one or several layers of other colours.
The Ground under sgraffito put in the usual way accepted for izvestkovo-sandy plasters. Having allowed to it to harden, not before definitive drying, put the first colour layer in the thickness 7... 8 mm - colour preparatory. As soon as it slightly will get stronger, put nakryvochnyj a layer of other colour - one if it is provided two-layer sgraffito, or 1... 2 for multilayered (all different colours).
Multilayered vytsarapyvanie it is very difficult to carry out to the usual dresser, especially if it tonkoslojnoe and multilayered sgraffito where it is necessary to achieve light and shade clever game. Here usually
Artists operate. SHtukaturu quite on forces of two- and even three-layer sgraffito.
For a covering colour layer it is possible to take a solution with krupnostju grains as in nakryvke izvestkovo-sandy plaster.
For the middle class the filler with krupnostju grains 0,15 is necessary... 0,6 mm, go to the top layer a solution with powder - less than 0,15 mm.
We Will assume, you do two-coloured sgraffito. Have imposed the top layer. Now it is necessary to put on it drawing. The template-cliche made from strong nerazmokaemogo of a cardboard, impregnated with drying oil for this purpose serves. A cliche strengthen on a finished plane and shilom replace on it drawing. Without removing a cliche, dust places of punctures black powder or a chalk (depending on tone of the top plaster coat). The powder for this purpose is convenient for placing in a sack from a leaky fabric. When the cliche is removed, on a wall there will be an accurate contour of drawing.
It is necessary to do All these operations quickly: the scratched out layer should be damp enough if it has dried up, the further work is impossible. Vytsarapyvanie it is necessary to begin not later than through 5... 6 ch after drawing of a processed layer. Therefore and the top finishing layer put the small sites calculated for work of the dresser during change.
For vytsarapyvanija drawing there is a whole tooling: shovels, direct and semicircular chisels, skobliki.
The Top layer cut in the area of drawing not at right angle, and with some bias. These edges protect drawing from destruction, and also (if the external wall gets off) do not allow to a moisture to be late along the edges podreza. The cut top layer accurately delete, baring the layer of other colour located under it.
Work can be simplified if to use the templates which have been cut out from plywood or thin boards, impregnated with drying oil. At two-coloured sgraffito a template strengthen on a surface of the first layer. The thickness of a template should be to an equal thickness of the second layer of colour plaster. A solution put zapodlitso
With a template. Having allowed to weight to get stronger, a template remove, and on a wall there is a drawing of colour of the first layer.
At three-coloured sgraffito at first operate as at the two-coloured. But the first template leave. The second place from above, blocking it the first, and put the third layer. Both templates remove, when the solution will get stronger.
It is not necessary to use templates, working with plaster solutions. Plaster, as it is known, at tverdenii increases in volume, and to remove a template, without having damaged a drawing edge, it is not possible.
The Fresco. In conclusion of the story about decorative plasters it is necessary to mention frescos. A fresco name polichromatic steady painting on plaster. Who did not hear about this ancient, well-known kind of the painting executed famous all to the world by masters-artists!
Shtukaturu here is taken away a modest role - only to prepare the basis for a list of walls. But how it will perform the work, the durability of a list depends. Requirements to a ground under a fresco very strict. First of all it is necessary to track, that the wall was not only dry at present, but also moisture reliably isolated from penetration, including ground waters.
For reliable coupling of a ground with the basic plane a laying clear of a dust, clear away seams. If a brick not porous, it notch.
The Ground put from a limy solution. But prepare it especially. The only well stood limy dough suits it from the limestones burnt on charcoal.
The Limy dough maintain not less than year (old masters maintained it for 10 years!). In this time it some times otmuchivajut: dilute to a condition of limy milk, pass through a hair sieve, allow to settle and water merge.
Sand carefully wash out, that in it does not remain clay and other impurity. In general it is recommended to take sand from white marble.
The Ground put in 5... 6 layers, a thickness of everyone 3... 4 mm. Structure for the bottom layers 1:2, for top 1:1,5. Krupnost sand in process of drawing of layers reduce.
After drawing of each layer it is necessary to condense weight of a solution well with blows of a grater or prokatat the platen.
Last layer should be smoothly jammed. The acted grains of sand cautiously remove a brush or a soft tampon.
The Artist begins a list at once on a damp ground as soon as on a surface there is a film carbonic to exhaust, it is impossible to put paints. Therefore shtukatur prepares front for the painter small zahvatkami - such with what it is possible to paint for a day.